What is the Cough?
– Is one of the most common symptoms encountered in respiratory disease.
– Is an act of defense reflex by which the removal of foreign bodies, of irritating particles products due to exudative inflammatory processes and abundant secretions from the airways and sometimes the cough should not be addressed.
– Begins with a deep inspiration determined through the stimulated receptors from the trachea and bronchial mucosa, followed by closure of the glottis, diaphragmatic relaxation and contraction of the respiratory muscles. This produces an increase the intrathoracic pressure that triggers an explosive exhale expel secretions and foreign bodies.
Depending on the productivity , the cough can be:
– Dry – short, repeated, and is not followed by expectoration, and is painful. Appears on: effusion, pneumothorax, mediastinal tumors, pulmonary fibrosis, lung cancer onset, allergic disease, pharyngitis, laryngitis, bronchitis, tracheobronchitis onset, but also emotional, subdiaphragmatic irritation and in some patients treated with IACE (inhibitors of angiotensin converting enzyme).
– Wet or productive – after cough reflex to expel the phlegm from the airways. Occurs when chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, pulmonary, phase hypersecretion (Cocteau) of acute tracheobronchitis. Productive cough with inefficient expectoration it is meet at extreme ages (children, elderly) and the neurological conditions.
Causes of cough:
– Inflammation – is initiated by edema and hiepermia of respiratory mucosa by irritation of the exudative processes (tracheitis, bronchitis, bronchiolitis, pneumonia, lung abscess, pleural)
– Mechanical – inhalation of particles (dust) or airway compression. The lesions that may compress the airway may be intramural (carcinoma bronchial, foreign body, endobronchial granulomas) or extramural (aortic aneurysm, neoplasm, mediastinal tumors). Another cause may be the obstruction of airways with foreign bodies.
– Chemical – cough appears as a defense mechanism in inhalation of irritating gases (smoke, chemical gases).
– Thermal – thermal cough occurs due to inhalation of very hot or very cold air.